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AC Separation Rotator Cuff Injury Shoulder Instability Sternoclavicular Injury

Shoulder Anatomy


The shoulder joint has the greatest range of motion of all the bodies’ articulations. The shoulder (Fig.1) is formed by the scapula (shoulder blade), clavicle (collarbone) and the humerus (upper arm). The roof of the scapula is called the acromion. The shoulder is comprised of three main joints:
  • The glenohumeral joint (the juncture of the ball of the humerus and the shallow socket of the scapula, glenoid).
  • The acromioclavicular (AC) joint (the meeting of the clavicle and the acromion).
  • The sternoclavicular (SC) joint (the meeting of the clavicle and sternum).

Hyaline Cartilage

The shoulder is covered with articular cartilage (Fig.1). This material cushions and provides a smooth surface which permits movement with minimal friction.


Ligaments connect bone to bone. In the shoulder ligaments create a joint capsule (a watertight sac surrounding a joint). The joint capsule (Fig. 2) connects the humerus and the glenoid, maintaining stability and holding the shoulder in place to keep it from dislocating.

The glenoid labrum (Fig.3) is a unique fibrocartilage structure circular in nature. It attaches around the edge of the glenoid and creates a deeper socket for the humerus to sit in. the labrum is also the attachment site of the biceps tendons.

Muscles and Tendons

Tendons connect muscle to bone. The muscles and tendons of the rotator cuff hold the humeral head in the glenoid socket (Fig.4). The rotator cuff helps to lift and rotate the arm.

The muscles of the rotator cuff are:
  • Supraspinatus
  • Infraspinatus
  • Subscapularis
  • Teres Minor

Browse By Medical Condition

Rotator Cuff Injury

Rotator cuff tears are the most common shoulder injuries. Shop our selection of shoulder braces and supports for rotator cuff tears. Read more..

AC Separation

Shop shoulder supports for a separated shoulder or AC joint separation. Utilizing a brace for support and stability, cold therapy, and rest can help treat minor to moderate cases of shoulde Read more..

Shoulder Instability

Shoulder instability is a common shoulder injury. Shop our selection of braces and supports for shoulder instability. Read more..

Sternoclavicular Injury

Clavicle fractures make up about 10% of all fractured bones in adults, but are the most commonly fractured bone in children. Clavicle braces are also used for posture control. Read more..

Shoulder Injuries